ClearUP Mechanisms of Action: Two Principal Pathways

Trigeminal Nerve Branches

1. Vasoconstriction

  • The blood vessels that supply the sinus and nasal mucosa are surrounded by sympathetic nerve fibers.
  • Electrical stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibers has been shown to promote release of norepinephrine.1-3
  • Norepinephrine facilitates smooth muscle contraction around the blood vessels, leading to vasoconstriction.4
  • Vasoconstriction of arterioles and venous vessels, in the context of sinonasal inflammation, results in smaller vessel diameter, relieving pressure on the nerves and reducing resistance to air flow.
  • Over time, repeated vasoconstriction can reduce edema and extravasation of inflammatory immune cells, contributing to reduced symptom severity.

2. Trigeminal Nerve Stimulation

  • The trigeminal nerve — the ophthalmic nerve (V1) and maxillary nerve (V2) — is responsible for relaying sensory information to the brain.
  • Electrical microcurrent delivered in the periorbital regions stimulates subcutaneous fibers of these branches.
  • Neuromodulation of the trigeminal nerve pathway may alleviate sensations of pain and pressure.

Learn More About Emerging Research

  1. Mandel, Yossi, et al. “Vasoconstriction by electrical stimulation: new approach to control of non-compressible hemorrhage.” Scientific Reports 3 (2013)
  2. Franco, O.S., et al. “Effects of different frequencies of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on venous vascular reactivity.” Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research 47.5 (2014): 411-418.
  3. Malm, L. “Stimulation of sympathetic nerve fibres to the nose in cats.” Acta otolaryngologica 75.2-6 (1973); 519-526.
  4. Fischer, Laurent, et al. “Adrenergic and non-adrenergic vasoconstrictor mechanisms in the human nasal mucosa.” Rhinology 31.1 (1993): 11-15.